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双语阅读|语言的欺骗性

原标题:双语阅读|语言的欺骗性A BEARDED SWEDE in a three-piece suit stands at a lectern. Spotlit, Erik Bünger tells his listeners about...……

原标题:双语阅读|语言的欺骗性

A BEARDED SWEDE in a three-piece suit stands at a lectern. Spotlit, Erik Bünger tells his listeners about an exchange between Ludwig Wittgenstein and Bertrand Russell in 1911. According to Wittgenstein, Russell could not say with certainty that there was no rhinoceros in his study. Mr Bünger (pictured) says he is not interested in who was right, but in why Wittgenstein chose a rhinoceros. “There was certainly an elephant in the room,” he concludes. “And that elephant was a rhinoceros.”

一位满脸胡须的瑞典人身着三件套,站在讲台上。ErikBünger在聚光灯下向听众讲述着1911年路德维希·维特根斯坦和伯特兰·罗素之间的对话。据维特根斯坦说,罗素不能肯定犀牛是否在他的研究中出现过。Bünger说对谁是谁非并不感兴趣,但维特根斯坦选择犀牛的原因却令他好奇。“房间里肯定有一头大象,”他总结道。 “而且那只大象是一头犀牛。”

Laughter ripples through the audience at Video Art at Midnight (VAM), a monthly event at Berlin’s beautiful Babylon cinema. A series of video artists, including luminaries such as Wolfgang Tillmans, have shown work at VAM in the decade since its inception. Mr Bünger instead offers a lecture performance. In the 40 minutes of “The Elephant Who Was A Rhinoceros”, he leads the auditorium through a series of connections. The spectral rhinoceros turns into a metaphorical elephant, which becomes a white bear, which (Mr Bünger says) will flash in listeners’ minds when they are told not to think about it. A cultural history of language takes in Adam’s naming of the animals in the Garden of Eden, cave paintings and the invention of the alphabet. Invert the letter A, Mr Bünger says, and you see the devil and his horns.

在“午夜视频艺术”(VAM)节目里,观众捧腹大笑。这是柏林美丽的巴比伦电影院推出的月度节目。不少视频艺术家——包括像沃尔夫冈·蒂尔曼斯这样的名人——自该活动创办以来的十年间里,在VAM上展示过创作的节目。Bünger的表演是演讲。《大象是犀牛》持续40分钟,他带着观众们感受几个事物间的联系。幽灵犀牛变成了一只比喻意义上的大象,而后者变成了一只白熊;而当不让观众们想起白熊,白熊反而会在听众大脑中闪现。亚当在伊甸园中给动物取名,洞穴壁画和字母表的发明都是语言的文化史。他还说道,把字母A倒过,你会能看到魔鬼和他的犄角。

Gradually the amusement is muted as listeners begin to question what he is doing—and, indeed, what they are doing. To begin with, they “can follow everything, feel surprise and even laugh,” says Renia Vagkopoulou, Mr Bünger’s wife, who has seen all his performance works many times. At some point, things become more complex, as people are forced to interrogate their responses. “Some even get a little shocked. What starts as a theoretical exercise becomes more and more personal.”

紧接着,听众开始质疑他的所作所为——事实上,是他们自己的行为时,现场的欢声笑语变得鸦雀无声。首先,观看过很多次他的表演的Bünger妻子Renia Vagkopoulou认为 ,一开始,观众们“跟着瞳,感到惊讶,甚至大笑”。有时,事情变得更加复杂,因为人们不得不质问自己的反应。“有些人甚至有点震惊。一开始是理论性的问题变得越来越个人化。”

By getting the audience to grapple with its own role, Mr Bünger’s work fits into an established artistic tradition, says Manuel Olveira, an expert in the lecture form and director of MUSAC, a contemporary-art gallery in León, Spain. He cites John Cage’s “Event” of 1952 (which incorporated a talk on Buddhism), Dan Graham’s “Performer/Audience/Mirror” of 1975 (in which the artist narrated his own movements and observations), and Andrea Fraser’s “Museum Highlights” of 1989 (in which she posed as a guide to the Philadelphia Museum of Art). Like Mr Bünger, each raised questions about how knowledge is produced and disseminated. “Lecture performance is a vibrant category within the wider performance medium,” says Adela Yawitz, a Berlin-based curator, mentioning several other practitioners. The form is fluid, she notes: performances can be live or taped, discrete or combined with other media.

演讲专家,同时也是西班牙莱昂当代艺术画廊MUSAC的经理的Manuel Olveira说道:“通过让观众努力克服自己的角色,Bünger的作品符合现有的艺术传统”。他引用了约翰凯奇1952年表演的“事件”(其中包含了一个佛教话题),丹·格雷厄姆1975年的“表演者/观众/镜子”(艺术家叙述了他自己的动作和观察),以及安德烈弗雷泽1989年的“博物馆的亮点”(她扮演一位费城艺术博物馆导游)。像Bünger一样,每位艺术家都提出了关于知识产生和传播的问题。柏林策展人阿德拉亚维茨说,“演讲表演是宽泛的表演媒体中的一个类别,富有朝气”。他还提到了其他几位表演者。她指出,这种形式不是固定的,可以通过现场或录音,独立的,也可以和其它媒介结合。

Performance art is not the only means by which lectures have broken free from formal education. Internet streaming has led to the rise of TED talks, which attract billions of clicks a year, as well as boosting the audience for stand-up comedy. Mr Bünger admits to being inspired by comics such as Larry David and Louis CK, and concedes that, at first sight, his art may seem reminiscent of formats such as TED. But at a deeper level, he insists, “my lecture performance is the absolute antithesis of TED”. He sees short video talks as “vehicles of pure solutionism”: hard questions reduced to slick formulae. For him, lecture performance lays bare the imbalance of power between lecturer and listener, and highlights the alchemy of language.

行为艺术并不是让演讲脱离传统形式教育的唯一手段。互联网流媒体让TED演讲兴起,每年引来数十亿次人次的点击量,也让喜爱脱口秀喜剧的观众越来越多。Bünger承认受到Larry David和Louis CK等漫画的启发,并表示他的艺术初看可能会让人想起TED这样的形式。但在更深层次上,他坚持说:“我的演讲表演与TED完全相反”。他认为短视频谈话是“纯粹解决主义的载体”:把难以解决的问题简化为华而不实的套路。对他来说,演讲表演暴露了演讲人和听众之间权力的不平衡,并突出了语言的魔力。

His previous work evoked similar themes. “A Lecture on Schizophonia” (2009-2011) explored the impact of recorded speech. “The Third Man” (2010) dealt with the aura of song, roping in ABBA and Kylie Minogue. “The Girl Who Never Was” (2014) tells the serpentine story of a child whose voice was once thought to have been captured on a primitive audio recording, but who turned out not to have existed. “I’m placing a voice in the heads of my listeners,” Mr Bünger explains of that piece. “Most will see the girl in their mind’s eyes—she will come to exist.”

他之前的作品提出了类似的主题。《精神分裂症讲座》(2009-2011)探讨了录音演讲的影响。“第三人”(2010)则与歌曲的氛围相关,在ABBA和Kylie Minogue中演唱。《从未有过的女孩》(2014)讲述了一个有关孩子的曲折故事:这个孩子的声音原以为是从一个录音素材里提取的,但结果却并不存在。Bünger解释说,“将声音进入观众的脑海,大多数人会在他们的脑海中看到这个女孩——她就真实存在了。”

Human speech, maintains Mr Bünger, “refuses to follow the binary logic” of truth and falsehood or past and present. It is more slippery and magical than that. When the lights go on in the Babylon cinema, the magic seems to have worked. “Now, whenever you see an A, you will see something else,” chuckles Mats Birgert, one half of the video-art duo Birgert and Bergström. “That’s what art is about.”

Bünger一直认为,人类的语言“不遵循”真理和谎言或过去和现在的“二元逻辑”。 它更为灵活,更加神奇。当巴比伦影院的灯光亮起时,魔法似乎奏效。视频艺术二人组Birgert和Bergström的搭档之一Mats Birgert笑道:“现在,只要你看到字母A,你就会看到其他的东西,这就是艺术的意义所在。”

编译:方涵

编辑:翻吧君

来源:经济 学人(2019.02.21)

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